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A predicate in a sentence (or clause) tells you what the subject does or is. You could also say that the predicate is everything that is not the subject. So, to give you an example, in the sentence 'The email contained many interesting details', 'The email', is the subject, and 'contained many interesting details.' is the predicate.
In the sentence 'The applicants for the job were skilled programmers.', 'The applicants for the job' is the subject, and 'were skilled programmers' is the predicate.
What faulty predication means is that a sentence's predicate doesn't logically complete its subject, and there are three causes for it:
1. Incorrect use of the verb Be
2. Incorrect use of 'Is when' and 'is where'
3. Use of: 'The Reason ... Is Because'
Let's start with number 1, which is incorrect use of Be. Faulty predication often occurs in sentences with a linking verb - a form of to be, for example. - in combination with a subject complement, like in this example:
Political corruption and economic decline
What the writer says here is that 'Political corruption and economic decline' were the downfall of the roman empire, as if 'the downfall of the Roman empire' described or identified the subject 'Political corruption and Economic decline', while in fact what the writer meant to say was that they were reasons for the downfall.
What the sentence should have been is:
Political corruption and Economic decline caused the downfall of the Roman Empire.
Number two is incorrect use of Is when and Is Where. This type of faulty predication often occurs when the writer presents a definition that includes a construction with one of is when or is where, like here:
When defining something is must be preceded and followed by nouns or noun phrases, which is not the case here so the sentence could be rewritten like this:
Arachnophobia is the fear of spiders and other arachnids.
Now 'the fear of spiders and other arachnids' defines 'arachnophobia'.
Number three, using The reason in combination with Is because leads to a similar problem as you can see in this sentence:
The reason they overeat is
When the phrase the reason is precedes because., like in the example, the word because means for the reason that, so the writer is saying the same thing twice. This is why because should be deleted and the sentence would look like this:
The reason they overeat is that they are bored.